Throughout the litigation, the Plaintiffs challenged federal and local housing policies that created public housing on a segregated basis and perpetuated segregation in public housing, both through the siting and occupancy of the housing. After the litig ation was well under way, HUD found in a Title VI Compliance Review that for over 50 years, the local housing authority developed and managed public housing according to one consistent theme -- segregate by race.
The Decree, negotiated by the parties during July and August of 1994, attempts to remedy the fact that a vast majority of communities in the County have closed their doors to low-income, African-American residents. The concentration of segregated black p ublic housing in a handful of identifiably black neighborhoods demonstrates that there were only a few communities in which African-Americans were "permitted" to live. Further, the disinvestment and decline that have occured in these neighborhoods demons trate that such a restriction on housing opportunity has had a very real impact on the lives of low-income, African-American public housing residents. The Decree provides that all newly constructed public housing must be scattered site housing (12 units or less) and must be built in areas that have not opened their doors to low-income people of color in the past. The Decree also contemplates that obsolete units or developments will be demolished and replaced in non-impacted neighborhoods. In addition, in conjunction with a newly created "mobility program," 450 additional desegregative Section 8 certificates will be provided to class members, along with counseling and support services, to give them the option of gaining access to educational and employm ent opportunities that may exist outside of their own communities.
To help turn around those communities in which public housing and the use of Section 8 has been confined, the Decree provides that 25% of the County's Community Development Block Grant (CDGB) budget over 7 years will be used to target those communities fo r community and economic development and affordable housing opportunities. This CDBG money, which will amount to roughly 4 million dollars per year for 7 years, will be used to leverage other federal, state, and private funds.
The Decree is designed to redirect resources so that more homeownership assistance and development of affordable housing and employment opportunities can take place in impoverished African-American communities, while traditional public housing assistance can be used in white communities of higher income populations where such assistance was not used in the past.
The Decree calls for the merger of the public housing and Section 8 waiting lists in a year. Individuals on the two lists will first be cross-listed, so that individuals may be offered, but not penalized for rejecting, a unit for which they did not apply . After one year, the lists will be merged so that an applicant will be offered a range of all available desegregative housing opportunities, which may include conventional public housing, Section 8 tenant-based assistance, and other assisted housing uni ts. Each applicant will receive counseling by a non-profit Fair Housing Services Center (FHSC), created under the Decree, at the time he or she is made an offer or offers. The FHSC will assist applicants in considering and making desegregative moves.